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Diabetes: Types and Treatment 

by Sonal Shukla

Diabetes is a chronic disease that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become abnormally high. Once you get diabetes, it is fairly normal to wonder whether type 1 or type 2 diabetes can be reversed and how. Understand what causes your blood sugar levels to rise and fall and how to manage these day-to-day issues.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin-dependent type of diabetes is another name for type 1 diabetes. Because it commonly originates in youth, it was previously known as juvenile-onset diabetes.

Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune disease. Antibodies target your pancreas, causing it to malfunction. The organ has been destroyed and is no longer producing insulin. Your genes could cause this type of diabetes. It could also be caused by issues with insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.

Damage to microscopic blood vessels in your eyes, nerves, and kidneys creates many health concerns associated with type 1 diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). People with type 1 diabetes are also more likely to develop cardiac disease and stroke.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes was previously known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes. However, it has become increasingly common in children and teenagers in the last 20 years, owing to an increase in the number of young people who are overweight or obese. Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 90% of people with diabetes.

Your pancreas normally produces some insulin when you have type 2 diabetes. However, either it is insufficient, or your system does not utilise it properly. Insulin resistance is a condition in which your cells do not respond to insulin. It most commonly affects fatty, hepatic, and muscle cells.

Type 2 diabetes is usually less severe than type 1. However, it can still create serious health problems, particularly in the tiny blood arteries that go through your kidneys, nerves, and eyes. 

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs when your blood glucose levels rise during pregnancy. Expectant mothers who have never been identified with diabetes are at risk. However, following a healthy diet for gestational diabetes can help pregnant women manage the condition.

Managing your dietary habits and staying active are essential aspects of your gestational diabetes treatment. It will assist you in keeping your blood glucose levels within a safe range, increasing your chances of having a successful pregnancy.

The infant is more likely to get gestational diabetes than the mother. A baby’s weight gain may be uncommon before birth. The baby may have difficulty breathing at birth, or may have a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes later in life. A huge baby may necessitate a cesarean section, or the mother may suffer harm to her heart, kidneys, nerves, or eyes.

Diabetes Treatment

Doctors use a variety of drugs for diabetes treatment. Some of these medications are given orally, while others are administered via injection.

The most common diabetes treatment is insulin. It acts as a substitute for the hormone that your body is unable to manufacture.

  • Insulin is available in four different kinds. They differ in terms of how quickly they operate and how long their effects last:
    • Rapid-acting insulin kicks in within 15 minutes and has a 3- to the 4-hour duration of action.
    • Short-acting insulin kicks in after 30 minutes and lasts for 6 to 8 hours.
    • Intermediate-acting insulin takes 1 to 2 hours to start working and lasts 12 to 18 hours.
    • Long-acting insulin begins working a few hours after injection and lasts for up to 24 hours.
  • Some people with type 2 diabetes can benefit from a healthy diet and regular exercise.
  • As a person with diabetes, you’ll need to check your blood sugar levels many times daily. If it’s too high, food adjustments and exercise might not be enough to lower it.
  • Healthy nutrition is an important element of diabetes treatment. In some cases, simply improving your diet may be enough to keep the disease under control.
  • Limit sugary and salty foods, and watch your portion sizes. Overeating should be avoided. Consider working with dietitians or nutritionists to create an eating plan. They’ll make sure your diet has the appropriate macronutrient balance.
  • You’ll need to take medication if lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower your blood sugar.
    • Slow the breakdown of sugars and starchy foods in your body with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.
    • Change the way your body manufactures insulin with glucagon-like peptides.
    • Meglitinides- stimulate the release of more insulin from your pancreas.
    • Biguanides- lower the quantity of glucose produced by your liver.
  • The treatment you take will depend on your type of diabetes and how effectively it manages your blood glucose (also known as blood sugar) levels. Additional factors, such as your other medical problems, prescription expenses, and daily schedule, may influence the type of diabetic medication you use.

 

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